Generally speaking, salamis are not cooked but are meant to be eaten raw. The term “raw” is relative, and while the products are not cooked, they are made safe by achieving some important hurdles.
- The products contain Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Nitrate, as well as salt to control spoilage bacterial growth.
- It is very important for you to also add a Stater Culture. This is a highly concentrated and selected bacterial culture that has been developed to give a good flavour profile in the salami product and also to make sure that dangerous bacteria do not multiply in your salami and cause food poisoning concerns.
- Fermentation should be carried out at the temperature and time recommended by the Starter Culture manufacturer. This will ensure the starter culture bacteria multiply fast enough to out compete other bacteria that may be present on the meat.
- Maturation should be carried out at the correct temperature and humidity to ensure water activity decreases to safe levels, and also so that “case hardening” does not occur.
- Maturation should take long enough for the salami to lose the correct amount of moisture so that harmful bacteria cannot survive.
All commercial enterprises making Salami in Australia need to have an approved process to ensure the safety of their products.
The amateur Salami maker needs to understand the principles behind safe Salami manufacture. If you are unsure, or do not have the correct equipment, please seek advice before proceeding. Do not act on advice from the internet alone. You are also not permitted to sell the products you make at home. Green Living Australia and our suppliers accept no responsibility for the safety of the product you make. You enter into manufacture of the Salami product for your own consumption understanding that responsibility for food safety is your own.
This information comes from the suppliers of Salami Salt, and other ingredients, to the smallgoods industry.
Hungarian Salami is a very mild product that is flavoured with spices such as pepper, garlic, mace and paprika. The meats are generally minced relatively fine to give an even dispersion of fat and lean. The product is generally quite low in acid and can also be smoked during fermentation if desired. The traditional product also has a white mould that grows on the surface of the casing as the product matures.
- 66% Lean Pork
- 28% Pork back fat
- 3.0% Spice Mix
- 0.5% Salami Salt
- Required Dose of Starter Culture
- 0.5% Sherry or white wine
- 2.3% Salt
- Grind the partially frozen meat and fat separately through a fine mincer plate
- Combine the fat and lean meat
- Dissolve the starter culture in a tablespoon of tap water
- Add the dissolved starter culture to the meat and mix in well
- Add the seasoning and wine to the meat and mix in well
- Add the salt to the meat and mix in well
- Refrigerate for 1 hour
- Stuff into natural or artificial casings – should be about 80 - 100 mm lay flat
- Ferment at 22 Deg C for 72 hours (85% humidity)
- Let the salami hang for 2 – 3 months at 12 – 16 Deg C. (75% humidity)
From SACCO, Suppliers of our Salami Culture, comes the following information
General production procedure for fermented, dry sausage
The following should be anticipated as general guidelines as serve as inspiration for successful productions of fermented sausages.
- The meat is chopped in cubes of approx. 5 x 5 cm and frozen for >24 hours at -18°C until solid.
- Add the frozen cubes of meat to the bowl chopper and start at slow speed until the required size is reached.
- Add dextrose/glucose, spices, Na-ascorbate, eventually other ingredients (e.g. starch, proteins) and Lyocarni starter culture (not salt) by sprinkling across the meat mixture.
- Add the cubes of frozen back fat and continue chopping at slow speed until the required texture has reached.
- Add the salt and nitrite salt and increase the speed of the bowl chopper. Continue chopping (a few rounds) until the final required texture is reached.
Important: The meat temperature must not exceed 0°C; otherwise the meat mixture may start to smear during stuffing.
- Fill immediately (temperature of meat mixture -2 to 0°C) into well-soaked collagen casings.
- Place the filled sausages in a (drying) room at approx. 15-20°C without air circulation for acclimatisation (to avoid condensation on the sausages when moved to the climate chamber).
- Transfer the sausages to the climate chamber. Include a smoking stage, if required. The drying time depends on the weight loss desired and the diameter of the casing; the larger the diameter of the casings the longer the fermentation, drying and maturing process. Normally, a weight loss of about 20% combined with pH below 5.2 (depending on e.g. the meat content) is sufficient to produce a stable and safe product. The required weight loss is product/legislation dependent.
Important: To avoid dry rim, which can make the drying out difficult or impossible, the humidity in the climate chamber must be high (>90%) during the fermentation process (until pH is <5.3).
When a new production procedure is introduced, the acidification should be followed in the first couple of productions by measuring with a pH-meter until pH 5.3 is obtained and the drying out can be initiated.
Summary of some of the most important points to consider in the processing of fermented sausages:
- The raw materials should not contain a high number of indigenous bacteria which may result in fermentation faults, off-flavour and discoloration etc.
- During fermentation the temperature should be 22-40°C which allows the bacteria to acidify as desired.
- The humidity at the beginning of the fermentation must be rather high. It must be at least over 90% r.h. and the best results are obtained when it is approx 95% r.h.